In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term". Events before completion of 37 weeks are considered preterm. Preterm birth is associated with a range of complications and should be avoided if possible. Among the oldest surviving examples of the depiction of pregnancy are prehistoric figurines found across much of Eurasia and collectively known as Venus figurines Some of these appear to be Due to the important role of the Mother of God in Christianity the Western visual arts have a long tradition of depictions of pregnancy especially in the biblical scene of the Visitation and devotional images called a Madonna. Most women experience a number of symptoms, which can signify pregnancy A number of early medical signs are associated with pregnancy. These signs include: Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country. Women who are high risk have better outcomes if they are seen regularly and frequently by a medical professional than women who are low risk. A woman can be labeled as high risk for different reasons including previous complications in pregnancy complications in the current pregnancy current medical diseases or social issues. The postnatal period also referred to as the puerperium begins immediately after delivery and extends for about six weeks. During this period the mother's body begins the return to pre-pregnancy conditions that includes changes in hormone levels and uterus size. Weeks 13 to 28 of the pregnancy are called the second trimester Most women feel more energized in this period and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away The uterus the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus can expand up to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy Although the fetus begins to move during the first trimester it is not until the second trimester that movement often referred to as "quickening" can be felt This typically happens in the fourth month more specifically in the 20th to 21st week or by the 19th week if the woman has been before It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later During the second trimester most women begin to wear maternity clothes Dha omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina and is naturally found in breast milk. It is important for the woman to consume adequate amounts of DHA during pregnancy and while nursing to support her well-being and the health of her infant. Developing infants cannot produce DHA efficiently and must receive this vital nutrient from the woman through the placenta during pregnancy and in breast milk. "it's a long way from the stomach into the lower abdomen it's a heck of a trip but they made it," said Paulson "You just need sperm somewhere in the area of an egg." Paulson said in the early days of fertility treatments in the 1980s doctors injected sperm in the lower abdomen hoping for the coincidental encounter with an egg The procedure called DIPI or direct intraperitoneal insemination has largely been replaced by more effective methods The Lengths Sperm Can Travel Schlegel pointed out that although fertilization typically takes place in the fallopian tubes doctors know that sperm can normally swim up and out of the reproductive organs into the abdominal cavity Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behavior except when the healthcare provider advises that sexual intercourse be avoided for particular medical reasons. For a healthy woman there is no safe or right way to have sex during pregnancy. Pregnancy alters the vaginal flora with a reduction in microscopic species/genus diversity. Pre-Conception counseling is care that is provided to a woman and/ or couple to discuss conception pregnancy current health issues and recommendations for the period before pregnancy. Final weight gain takes place which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy The woman's abdomen will transform in shape as it drops due to the fetus turning in a downward position ready for birth During the second trimester the woman's abdomen would have been upright whereas in the third trimester it will drop down low The fetus moves regularly and is felt by the woman Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman The woman's navel will sometimes become convex "popping" out due to the expanding abdomen Babies born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation have better outcomes than babies born either before or after this range. This special time period is called "full term". Whenever possible waiting for labor to begin on its own in this time period is best for the health of the mother and baby. The decision to perform an induction must be made after weighing the risks and benefits but is safer after. The unhappy scene usually called Diana and Callisto showing the moment of discovery of Callisto's forbidden pregnancy is sometimes painted from the Renaissance onwards Gradually portraits of women began to appear with a particular fashion for "pregnancy portraits" in elite portraiture of the years around 1600 Pregnancy and especially pregnancy of unmarried women is also an important motif in literature Notable examples include Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles and Goethe's Faust During pregnancy the woman undergoes many physiological changes which are entirely normal including behavioral cardiovascular hematologic metabolic renal and respiratory changes Increases in blood sugar breathing and cardiac output are all required Levels of progesterone and oestrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle The chronology of pregnancy is unless otherwise specified generally given as gestational age where the starting point is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP) or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available Sometimes timing may also use the fertilization age which is the age of the embryo Statue of a woman Macedonia Nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure healthy growth of the fetus. Nutrition during pregnancy is different from the non- state. There are increased energy requirements and specific micronutrient requirements. Women benefit from education to encourage a balanced energy and protein intake during pregnancy. Some women may need professional medical advice if their diet is affected by medical conditions food allergies or specific religious/ ethical beliefs. About 213 million pregnancies occurred in 2012 of which 190 million were in the developing world and 23 million were in the developed world This is about 133 pregnancies per 1,000 women between the ages of 15 and 44. About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage. Globally 40% of pregnancies are unplanned Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted. The rate of pregnancy as well as the ages at which it occurs differ by country and region It is influenced by a number of factors such as cultural social and religious norms; access to contraception; and rates of education The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013 was estimated to be highest in Niger ( children/woman) and lowest in Singapore ( children/woman). In Europe the average childbearing age has been rising continuously for some time In Western Northern and Southern Europe first-time mothers are on average 26 to 29 years old up from 23 to 25 years at the start of the 1970s In a number of European countries (Spain) the mean age of women at first childbirth has crossed the 30-year threshold The aim of good prenatal care is prevention early identification and treatment of any medical complications. A basic prenatal visit consists of measurement of blood pressure fundal height weight and fetal heart rate checking for symptoms of labor and guidance for what to expect next. A strange tale of oral sex a knife fight and the most unlikely of pregnancies recently brought to light by the blogosphere has doctors touting the triumphant persistence of sperm In 1988 a 15-year-old girl living in the small southern African nation of Lesotho came to local doctors with all the symptoms of a woman in labor But the doctors were quickly puzzled because upon examination she didn't have a vagina "Inspection of the vulva showed no vagina only a shallow skin dimple," so doctors delivered a healthy baby boy via Caesarean the authors wrote in a case report published in the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Women can also be exposed to toxins in the workplace including airborne particles The effects of wearing N95 filtering facepiece respirators are similar for women as non- women and wearing a respirator for one hour does not affect the fetal. "the sperm are naturally there at times and eggs are naturally there," said Schlegel "Eggs are released from the ovary and they sort of dance around before they get taken up by the fallopian tube." Sperm Can Swim Far in the Female Body So it seems Schlegel concluded that the sperm could also be taken up by the fallopian tube as could a fertilized egg But some doctors are still suspicious of or at least bewildered by the tale The 's birth defect is well known and by age 15 doctors say most s would have been doubling over in pain with an abdomen filled with menstrual fluid that cannot escape The menstrual fluid of several periods would make it even more unlikely for a pregnancy.
After about ten weeks of gestational age the embryo becomes known as a fetus At the beginning of the fetal stage the risk of miscarriage decreases sharply. At this stage a fetus is about 30 mm (1.2 inches) in length the heartbeat is seen via ultrasound and the fetus makes involuntary motions. During continued fetal development the early body systems and structures that were established in the embryonic stage continue to develop Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy In most cultures pregnant women have a special status in society and receive particularly gentle care. At the same time they are subject to expectations that may exert great psychological pressure such as having to produce a son and heir In many traditional societies pregnancy must be preceded by marriage on pain of ostracism of mother and (illegitimate) child Overall pregnancy is accompanied by numerous customs that are often subject to ethnological research often rooted in traditional medicine or religion The baby shower is an example of a modern custom Minute ventilation increases by 40% in the first trimester. The womb will grow to the size of a lemon by eight weeks Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester. Common symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy include: Anatomical model of a woman; Stephan Zick (1639-1715); 1700; Germanisches Nationalmuseum Regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy appears to improve (or maintain) physical fitness. Physical exercise during pregnancy does appear to decrease the risk of C-section. Bed rest outside of research studies is not recommended as there is no evidence of benefit and potential harm. Globally an estimated 270,000 women die from pregnancy-related complications. Pregnancy is typically broken into three periods or trimesters each of about three months. Each trimester is defined as 14 weeks for a total duration of 42 weeks although the average duration of pregnancy is 40 weeks. While there are no hard and fast rules these distinctions are useful in describing the changes that take place. Images of women especially small figurines were made in traditional cultures in many places and periods though it is rarely one of the most common types of image These include ceramic figures from some Pre-Columbian cultures and a few figures from most of the ancient Mediterranean cultures Many of these seem to be connected with fertility Identifying whether such figures are actually meant to show pregnancy is often a problem as well as understanding their role in the culture concerned The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. Weight gain is related to the weight of the baby the placenta extra circulatory fluid larger tissues and fat and protein stores. Most needed weight gain occurs later in pregnancy. Events after 42 weeks are considered postterm. When a pregnancy exceeds 42 weeks the risk of complications for both the woman and the fetus increases significantly. Therefore in an otherwise uncomplicated pregnancy obstetricians usually prefer to induce labour at some stage between 41 and. The beginning of pregnancy may be detected either based on symptoms by the woman herself or by using pregnancy tests However an important condition with serious health implications that is quite common is the denial of pregnancy by the woman About one in 475 denials will last until around the 20th week of pregnancy The proportion of cases of denial persisting until delivery is about 1 in 2500. Conversely some non- women have a very strong belief that they are along with some of the physical changes This condition is known as a false pregnancy. Head engagement where the fetal head descends into cephalic presentation relieves pressure on the upper abdomen with renewed ease in breathing It also severely reduces bladder capacity and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow For instance the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the vena cava when lying flat which is relieved by lying on the. Infertility experts note the story which resurfaced on a Discovery magazine blog is not only a testament to Murphy's Law but one to arguably nature's most impressive swimmers: sperm How Could Sperm Survive Those Conditions? "Here's an unbelievable set of coincidences," said Dr Richard Paulson head of the University of Southern California Fertility Program in Los Angeles "But it's totally plausible." "she'd have pain all the time and would have a stomach full of blood all the time and would have to be operated on or she would eventually die," said Dr Sherman J Silber director of the infertility center of Saint Louis at St Luke's Hospital in Missouri Dr Howard A Zacur a reproductive endocrinologist at Johns Hopkins also had doubts "The case report here suffers from the fact that an individual with a completely obstructed vaginal outlet would have been expected to have blood accumulation in the vagina and/or uterus," he wrote in an e-mail The authors of the report guessed a pregnancy could only be possible if the had ovulated once or at most twice before her pregnancy Whatever the true story of the woman and her now grown son Silber said it could send a message to ordinary couples planning pregnancy Relative size in 9th month (simplified illustration) Around 50% of women of childbearing age in developed countries like the United Kingdom are overweight or obese before pregnancy. Diet modification is the most effective way to reduce weight gain and associated risks in pregnancy. A diet that has foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent the onset of gestational diabetes. "this story is a crazy story and there's no way to make sense of it," said Silber "But the data on sperm is that normally it's quite good in an alkaline environment for two or three days -- that's why the average couple wastes a lot of energy when they're trying to get " Silber said he sees many couples who buy into the idea that they should time sex to coincide with the woman's ovulation But Silber said the remarkable survivability of sperm means most couples don't have to change their normal sex lives at all "The average American married couple tends to have sex two or three days a week," said Silber author of "How to Get " If sperm can survive for two or three days that means the average sex life of an American married couple results in living sperm swimming around the woman's body every single day of. In addition pregnancy may result in pregnancy complication such as deep vein thrombosis or worsening of an intercurrent disease in pregnancy Childbirth referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field is the process whereby an infant is born. A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular uterine contractions accompanied by changes of her cervix – primarily effacement and dilation While childbirth is widely experienced as painful some women do report painless labours while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations Most births are successful vaginal births but sometimes complications arise and a woman may undergo a cesarean section "the practice to check when you ovulate and not to have sex until you're ovulating is stupid," Silber said Silber said because ovulation calendars and methods to detect ovulation are somewhat inaccurate couples could miss ovulation and have sex too late "Twelve hours after ovulation the eggs aren't good any more You want to have the sperm there ready and waiting for when you ovulated," said Silber "It's absolutely true that sperm can last a. Bronze figure of a naked woman by Danny Osborne Merrion Square Octave Tassaert The Waif aka L'abandonnée 1852 Musée Fabre Montpellier Women are also counseled to eat seafood in moderation and to eliminate seafood known to be high in mercury because of the risk of birth defects. women are counseled to consume caffeine in moderation because large amounts of caffeine are associated with miscarriage. However the relationship between caffeine birthweight and preterm birth is unclear. Of pregnancies in 2012 120 million occurred in Asia 54 million in Africa 19 million in Europe 18 million in Latin America and the Caribbean 7 million in North America and 1 million in Oceania. Pregnancy rates are 140 per 1000 women of childbearing age in the developing world and 94 per 1000 in the developed world. In 2014 the American state of Tennessee passed a law which allows prosecutors to charge a woman with criminal assault if she uses illegal drugs during her pregnancy and her fetus or newborn is considered harmed as a result. In the United States laws make some actions that result in miscarriage or stillbirth crimes One such law is the federal Unborn Victims of Violence Act Most women can continue to engage in sexual activity throughout pregnancy. Most research suggests that during pregnancy both sexual desire and frequency of sexual relations decrease. In context of this overall decrease in desire some studies indicate a second-trimester increase preceding a decrease during the third trimester. Fertilization (conception) is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy with the derived age being termed fertilization age Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus This is about a week to ten days after fertilization. In this model during the time between conception and implantation the future fetus exists but the woman is not considered Pregnancy is an important topic in sociology of the family The prospective child may preliminarily be placed into numerous social roles The parents' relationship and the relation between parents and their surroundings are also affected A belly cast may be made during pregnancy as a keepsake Electrical brain activity is first detected between the fifth and sixth week of gestation It is considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought Synapses begin forming at 17 weeks and begin to multiply quickly at week 28 until 3 to 4 months after birth. Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization (Gestational age of. The use of recreational drugs in pregnancy can cause various pregnancy complications. Modern reproductive medicine offers many forms of assisted reproductive technology for couples who stay childless against their will such as fertility medication artificial insemination in vitro fertilization and surrogacy Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization (Gestational age of 40 weeks.) Relative size in 1st month (simplified illustration)
Although doctors know that sperm needs a low acid (high pH) environment to survive and would likely die eventually in the low pH of stomach acid doctors also said that sperm comes in a protective fluid: ejaculate a nourishing medium meant to protect the sperm Besides "out of hundreds of millions of sperm if you knock out 90 percent of them you're still going to have tens of millions of sperm," said Dr Peter Schlegel chairman of urology at New York Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York Paulson agreed "Sperm are pretty hardy," said Paulson who pointed out that sperm must make it out of the acidic environment of the vagina before reaching more friendly territory at the cervix and in the uterus Once in the abdominal wall Paulson estimated that the sperm could survive. Naegele's rule is a standard way of calculating the due date for a pregnancy when assuming a gestational age of 280 days at childbirth The rule estimates the expected date of delivery (EDD) by adding a year subtracting three months and adding seven days to the origin of gestational age Alternatively there are mobile apps which essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap year while pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for.
The terms preterm and postterm have largely replaced earlier terms of premature and postmature Preterm and postterm are defined above whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather than to the stage of pregnancy. The following are some examples of pregnancy complications: The fetus is genetically different from the woman and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft. The main reason for this success is increased immune tolerance during pregnancy. Immune tolerance is the concept that the body is able to not mount an immune system response against certain triggers. This process is not restricted to Europe Asia Japan and the United States are all seeing average age at first birth on the rise and increasingly the process is spreading to countries in the developing world like China Turkey and Iran In the US the average age of first childbirth was 25.4 in 2010. In the United States and United Kingdom 40% of pregnancies are unplanned and between a quarter and half of those unplanned pregnancies were unwanted pregnancies. According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists the main methods to calculate gestational. It has been suggested that shift work and exposure to bright light at night should be avoided at least during the last trimester of pregnancy to decrease the risk of psychological and behavioral problems in the newborn. There is also an increased susceptibility and severity of certain infections in pregnancy Intercurrent diseases Main article: Intercurrent disease in pregnancy A woman may have intercurrent diseases defined as disease not directly caused by the pregnancy but that may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy Her birth defect -- called Mullerian agenesis or Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome -- didn't necessarily surprise doctors but her pregnancy did Even the 15-year-old could not believe she was Yet by looking at her records the hospital staff realized the young woman was in the hospital 278 days earlier with a knife wound to her stomach The average pregnancy lasts 280 days After interviews they gathered that "Just before she was stabbed in the abdomen she had practiced fellatio with her new boyfriend and was caught in the act by her former lover The fight with knives ensued." Furthermore actual childbirth has only a certain probability of occurring within the limits of the estimated due date A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound and 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period. The arrived at the hospital with an empty stomach -- and therefore with little stomach acid around -- and doctors found two holes from a stab wound that opened her stomach up to her abdominal cavity The case report said doctors washed her stomach out with a salt solution and stitched her up "A plausible explanation for this pregnancy is that spermatozoa gained access to the reproductive organs via the injured gastrointestinal tract," the authors wrote Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger Portrait of Susanna Temple second wife of Sir Martin Lister 1620 Relative size in 3rd month (simplified illustration) Relative size in 5th month (simplified illustration) Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization (Gestational age of 10 weeks.) Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization (Gestational age of. Many countries have various legal regulations in place to protect women and their children Maternity Protection Convention ensures that women are exempt from activities such as night shifts or carrying heavy stocks Maternity leave typically provides paid leave from work during roughly the last trimester of pregnancy and for some time after birth Notable extreme cases include Norway (8 months with full pay) and the United States (no paid leave at all except in some states) Moreover many countries have laws against pregnancy discrimination The sperm and the egg cell which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries unite in one of the two fallopian tubes The fertilized egg known as a zygote then moves toward the uterus a journey that can take up to a week to complete Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the male and female cells unite Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall a process known as implantation